The 4 act play, classified as a symbolic drama, opened January 23, 1911 at the Knickerbocker Theater and ran for 96 performances. The play was by Edmond Rostand; the play designer John W. Alexander.
Critics did not care for the play or for the translation from the original French play. They felt that the main role should have gone to a male. Severe negative reviews, though, did not stop the public from coming, and it was a commercial success.
“The role of Chantecler, the most difficult one Maude had ever under-taken, posed acting demands she could never hope to meet.” (Maude Adams, an American Idol: True Womanhood Triumphant in the Late-Nineteenth and Early-Twentieth Century Theatre, doctoral thesis, 1984, Eileen Karen Kuehnl)
"This satire on society is notable for its wit and poetry. According to the author it is the drama of human endeavor grappling with life. Of it Rostand said : "It is a...symbolic poem in which I have used animals to evoke and develop the sentiments, passions and dreams of men...My cock is not, properly speaking, a dramatic hero. He is a character which I have used to express my own dreams and to make live, before my eyes, a little of myself." The tragic climax of the play comes when the vain Chantecler discovers he is not responsible for making the sun rise."(The Theatre Handbook and Digest of Plays edited by Bernard Sobel, 1940)
One writer, who had seen the French production of the same play, wrote:
"My own test of a play is not technical. My first question is, Would I care to see it again? Unless I was in want, nothing would hire me to Adams through the French production another time, and I should seize any opportunity to have another night with Maude Adam's presentation of it."
The play was also performed in Boston in November of 1911 and ran through 1912.
A few lines from the play go this way:
We must sing the song we know-
Must sing the song God gave us. Sing though we know
That other songs are more beloved than ours,
Sing unto death...
Not every source was pleased with her performance, however. One source wrote: "Even Maud(sic) Adams did not add to her potency with Rostand's 'Chantecler,' and there are many wise persons who believe that Miss Adams would have prospered to a greater extent with any play in her repertoire, while others, perhaps quite as competent to judge, believe that a male actor, such as Otis Skinner, would have given greater distinction to the title role in this Rostand play and also rendered that work more attractive to playgoers."
=====Charles Frohman:" Manager and Man by Issac F. Marcosson and Daniel Frohman, with an Appreciation by James M. Barrie. 1916=====
It was on March 30, 1910 that Charles crossed over from London to Paris to see this play. It thrilled and stirred him, and he bought it immediately. He realized that it would be either a tremendous success or a colossal failure, and he was willing to stand or fall by it. In Paris, the title role, originally written for the great Coquelin, had been played by Guitry. It was essentially a man's part. But Frohman, with that sense of the spectacular which so often characterized him immediately cast Miss Adams for it.
When he announced that the elf-Like girl-the living Peter Pan to millions of theater-goers-was to assume the feathers and strut of the barnyard Romeo, there was a widespread feeling that he was making a great mistake and that he was putting Miss Adams into a role, admirable artist that she was, to which she was absolutely unsuited. A storm of criticism arose. but Frohman was absolutely firm. Opposition only made him hold the ground all the stronger. When people asked him why he insisted upon casting Miss Adams for this almost impossible part he always said:
"'Chantecler' is a play with a soul, and this soul of a play is its moral. This is the secret of Peter Pan'; this is why Miss Adams is to play the leading part."
Miss Adams was in Chicago when Frohman bought the play, and he cabled her that she was to do the title part. She afterward declared that this news changed the full, dreary, soggy day into one that was brilliant and dazzling. "To play Chantecler," she said, "is an honor international in its glory."
The preparations for "Chantecler" were carried on with the usual Frohman magnificence. A fortune was spent on it. The costumes were made in Paris; John W. Alexander supervised the scenic effects.
The casting of the parts was in itself an enormous task. Frohman amused himself by having what he called "casting parties." For example, he would call up Miss Adams by long-distance telephone and say:
"I've got ten minutes before my train starts for Atlantic City. Can you cast a peacock for me?"
Whereupon Miss Adams would say:
"Ten minutes is too short."
Never, perhaps in the history of the American stage was the advent of a play so long heralded. The name "Chantecler" was on every tongue. Long before the piece was launched hats had been named after it, controversies had arisen over its anglicized spelling and pronunciation. All the genius of publicity which as the peculiar heritage of Charles Frohman was turned loose to pave the way for this extraordinary production. It was a nation-wide sensation.
For the first time in his life Charles had to postpone an opening. It was originally set for the 13th of January, 1911, but the first night did not come until the 23rd. This added to the suspense and expectancy of the public.
The demand for seats was unprecedented. A line began to form at four o'clock in the afternoon preceding the day the sale opened. Within twenty-four hours after th window was raised at the box-office as high as $200 was offered in vain for a seat on the opening night.
The Empire stage was too small, so the play was produced at the Knickerbocker Theater. A brilliant and highly wrought-up audience was present. Extraordinary interest centered about Miss Adam's performance as Chantecler. "Will she be able to do it?" was the question on every tongue. On that memorable spring night Frohman, as usual, sat in the back seat in th gallery and had the supreme satisfaction of seeing his star distinguish herself in a performance that in many respects revealed Miss Adams as she had never been revealed before. She was recalled twenty-two times.
Chantecler literally crowed and conquered!
======Aspects of Modern Drama by Frank Wadleigh Chandler; The Macmillan Company, 1914=====
If "Chantecler" be a social satire, it is also a study of egotism, of its folly and its practical wisdom. The rooster, so long as he believes in his power to evoke the sunrise, is happy. He does his work with a will, convinced that he is indispensable to the scheme of creation. But the Hen Pheasant, jealous of his faith in this mission, piques him into attending the Guinea-fowl's five o'clock tea. There he is laughed at by the pedants and fops, and attacked by a treacherous cock set on by the Birds of Night. When a Sparrow-hawk, sweeping low, frightens the gossips, they look to Chantecler for aid; but, as soon as the Hawk soars away, resume jeering. In the forest, whither Chantecler has been followed by the Pheasant, he still glories in his song, and accepts the flattery of the toads, until, on hearing the Nightingale's music, he first understands the inferiority of his own crowing.
When a shot from ambush slays the Nightingale, Chantecler, grieved to perceive that fate is no respecter of merit, turns to the Pheasant for comfort. But she, who has seen the dawn coming, resolves to test her lover's boasted power. Until the sun has risen, she screens his eyes with her wing, and then shows him in triumph that the work he has been at such pains to perform is useless. The process of the universe unfolds as well without him. At first, disillusioned, Chantecler laments; then, he takes heart; for at least his crowing has proclaimed the day. There remains this task worth doing. Spurning the Pheasant's further efforts at beguilement, he flies from the forest, leaving her freshly fascinated by his self-assertion. But, caught at that moment in a trap, she dies.
The symbols of this play require no elucidation. Concerning one alone has there been the least dispute. By some, the Hen Pheasant has been thought to stand for the new woman, eager to compete with man in the world and jealous of all his activities. By others, she has been thought to represent a type more ancient, the coquette in pursuit of the male, jealous of his work, not because she would share it, but because she would have his exclusive attention.
=====A Study of the Modern Drama: A Handbook for the Study and Appreciation of the Best Plays, European, English and American, of the Last Half Century by Barrett H. Clark; D. Appleton & Co., 1925=====
Play in 4 acts ( 1910). Texts: translation by Gertrude Hall ( N. Y. 1910); and by H. D. Norman in Plays of Edmond Rostand , 2 volumes ( N. Y. 1921).
When "Chantecler" appeared, the earliest verdict seemed to be that it was not up to the author's standard, and it was not so great a stage success as the earlier plays. To the public the play was confusing. This was largely due to the symbolism and partly to the. very brilliant quality of its style, more involved and much more.
"Chantecler" is a more mature work, deeper in its spiritual implication than either "Cyrano" or "L'Aiglon"; it deals with human aspirations and struggles, and is not primarily concerned with a story. It is a modern play, the only one Rostand ever wrote, and marks a turning point in his artistic development; it proves that during the ten years between the production "L'Aiglon" and that of "Chantecler" he was not content with the ephemeral celebrity to be won by the manufacture of popular successes.
"Chantecler" is, in the author's own words, the "drama of human endeavor grappling with life."
Has the poet selected the best medium of expression for his theme? Rostand has answered this question and explained his intentions himself in the following words:
I wished to write a modern play in verse. Now the lyrical qualities of a poetic production do not go well with the modern suit and the commonplace frock coat. It needs the additional costume. One must turn back for this two or three centuries, at least, or be obliged to set the play in countries of which the customs, language, and interests are very far from our own. But a poet may have the desire to express modern ideas with a modern vocabulary, to allude to happenings of the day the most Parisian, to laugh as one laughs on the boulevard in 1910, and to think as one thinks in France in the twentieth century. A problem difficult to solve! The sight of my barnyard at Cambo immediately offered me a solution. Why, here was the costume dreamt of -- if, one can say so! -- here indeed was the means of remaining modern, and at the same time that of being picturesque and lyrical. Characters garbed in animal dress, expressing themselves like human beings -- like the Parisians of the day. What a find! And furthermore, what an opportunity to speak of things in nature, to be deeply moved by flowers, birds, the bits of grass, or the insect -- and what a setting! -- No, really, the poet could not wish for a more beautiful theme!
But was it "a find"? Do you feel that the undoubtedly clever device of putting characters "in animal dress" is entirely successful?
Let us see how Rostand has succeeded. The play contains nothing very novel in the way of technical treatment; its merits are largely lyrical and poetic. As we are concerned here mainly with the technical side of the question, we shall inquire into how the author has built his play, and developed his ideas.
The exposition is somewhat helped by the Prelude, or prologue, which creates the atmosphere. It is indeed almost wholly atmospheric. The exposition proper merely intensifies the atmosphere and then introduces the characters. There is practically nothing of the past that needs to be known; the action starts on the stage, before our eyes. The Turkey and the Blackbird are soon sketched in, then Chantecler comes, singing his Hymn to the Sun: Patou sounds a note of warning and foreshadows Chantecler's struggle, sowing seeds of doubt in his mind. The Pheasant Hen arrives, Chantecler is captivated by her brilliant plumage, and the love motif has begun. There remains only the setting in motion of the wheels of action and the placing of the opposing forces; these are the birds of the night, and the Blackbird, all conspiring against Chantecler. What will happen to him?
Of the themes announced in the first act, two are developed in the second: the conspiracy against Chantecler and the love of Chantecler and the Pheasant Hen. Chantecler voices his profession of faith, and is eventually prevailed upon to tell her his secret.
How are these themes developed?
The third act is an elaborate exposition of the fatuousness of the enemies of Chantecler. Chantecler is the poet, the worker, the embodiment of all that is best in the French character. His enemies are the "Blagueurs," the faddists, the philistines. The "Guinea-hen's Reception" is a satire on faddism; into the midst of this scene comes the real enemy of Chantecler, the mercenary who will overcome him by physical force. The fight between the two is the climax of the play, and Chantecler's moment of triumph -- when he protects the barnyard against the Hawkits culminating point. But he must leave his old barnyard, "to save his soul." The struggle is over, and the opposing forces, chief among them the fighting cock who in a fury cut one claw with the other, are vanquished.
There remains only the dnouement. What will Chantecler do? How will his love for the Pheasant Hen end? In the last act we know these questions will be answered.
The Pheasant Hen's jealousy of Chantecler's power, and his own idea that his song causes the sun to rise, induce her to put Chantecler's faith to the test. The momentary disillusion is a bitter disappointment, for the sun rises independently of Chantecler's "Cocorico!"; it is also cruel for him to hear a voice sweeter than his own, the Nightingale's, but his faith in himself and his own small mission renews his self-confidence, and leaves him bigger and stronger than he was in his earlier parochial surroundings, that unquestioned lord of the little barnyard that was after all only a small and unimportant corner of the world.
Could the story, the characters and theme, have been set in a modern framework without the loss of a great deal that now charms us in this play?
=====French Theatre in New York: A List of Plays, 1899-1939 by Hamilton Mason; Columbia University Press, 1940=====
Cyrano de Bergerac stirred up enough excitement for both L'Aiglon and Chantecler to be events of prime importance during their respective seasons. L'Aiglon had the shorter run of the two, possibly because the Napoleonic legend could not arouse the same enthusiasm here as in France. The critics were, on the whole, in favor of Maude Adams, and she had no difficulty in meeting Bernhardt's competition. The New York Times even preferred her mirror and Wagram scenes to those of the Bernhardt production.
Chantecler ran for nearly one hundred performances. Failure would have been extremely surprising in view of the advance noise made over the play, together with its inherent novelty. Fortunately, it was also a beautiful example of optimistic philosophy and of Rostand's fertile imagination. Maude Adams again played the leading part, one for which neither she nor any woman was particularly fitted. The Paris managers showed more wisdom in this respect by assigning the role to Lucien Guitry. The Parisian Hen Pheasant excited as much interest as did Chantecler, since she was played by Mme Simone, who, the story went, had had considerable argument with Rostand over the requirement that she lay an egg in full view of the audience.
Chantecler: Chantecler, Edmond Rostand; adapter, Louis N. Parker; producer, Charles Frohman; Knickerbocker Theatre; January 23, 1911; 96 performances; with Maude Adams (Chantecler), Arthur Byron (Patou), Ernest Lawford (Blackbird), William Lewers (Peacock), Gustav von Seyffertitz (Great Horned Owl), Allen Fawcett (Screech Owl), Edward Morrison (Scops), Maurice Stewart (Stryx), Lillian Spencer (Surnia), Edward Wilson (Owlet), George Rowlands, (Caparacorn), David Manning (Kite Owlet), Bertrand Marburgh (Gamecock), Allen Fawcett (Pointer), Fred Tyler (Woodpecker), Walter Stanton (Cat), R. Peyton Carter (Turkey Cock), Wallace Jackson (Duck), Maurice Stewart (Guinea Chick), Edward Wilson (Cockerel), Edward Morrison (First Cockerel), F. Owen Baxter (Second Cockerel), David Manning (Third Cockerel), Fred Tyler (Magpie), Joseph Wallace (Rabbit), Veronica Marsh (Guinea Pig), May Blayney (Hen Pheasant), Dorothy Dorr (Guinea Hen), Ada Boshell (Old Hen), Margaret Gordon (White Hen), May Roberts (Grey Hen), Lillian Spencer (Black Hen), Maybelle Chapman, May Southern, Margaret Boland (Three Other Hens), Helen Fraft (Hen Turkey).
=====American Theatre: A Chronicle of Comedy and Drama, 1869-1914 by Gerald Bordman; Oxford University Press, 1994
When the box office opened to sell tickets for Louis N. Parker's translation of Edmond Rostand's Chantecler ( 1-23-11, Knickerbocker), the line began on Broadway near 38th and extended all along 38th Street over to Sixth Avenue. So unusual was it that many newspapers sent photographers rushing to record the scene. The play was not the reason for the line; rather, it was Charles Frohman's daring casting of Maude in the leading role, a role designed for the late Coquelin and played virtually everywhere by a man. This third fantasy in just over a week detailed the awakening to reality of a rooster who believes the whole world depends on and revolves about him. All the characters were animals, mostly the barnyard variety and costumed accordingly. Opening night brought about another awakening, demonstrating that America's most popular actress ha rigidly marked limitations. She could not suggest the rugged masculine ego or the palpable male sex appeal Chantecler required. Thanks largely to a huge advance sale and to assertive publicity, the play, ran three months, but its heavy initial outlays and high running costs meant it closed in the red.
=====The Theatre Handbook: And Digest of Plays by George Freedley, Bernard Sobel; Crown Publishers, 1940=====
Chantecler. Edmond Rostand (French). Symbolic drama. 4 acts. 1910.
This satire on society is notable for its wit and poetry. According to the author it is the drama of human endeavor grappling with life. Of it Rostand said: "It is a . . . symbolic poem in which I have used animals to evoke and develop the sentiments, passions, and dreams of men . . . My cock is not, properly speaking, a dramatic hero. He is a character which I have used to express my own dreams and to make live, before my eyes, a little of myself." The tragic climax of the play comes when the vain Chantecler discovers he is not responsible for making the sun rise.
=====Our American Theatre by Oliver M. Sayler; Brentano's, 1923=====
Chantecler, by Edmond Rostand, produced at the Knickerbocker Theatre, New York, January 23, 1911, by Charles Frohman, with Maude Adams; designer, John W. Alexander
=====A History of the Theatre in America from Its Beginnings to the Present Time Vol. 2 by Arthur Hornblow; J.B. Lippincott Company, 1919=====
In 1899, Maude Adams essayed the rle of Juliet and the following year she was seen for the first time in boy attire as the pathetic little Duc de Reichstadt in Rostand's Napoleonic play, "L'Aiglon." Two charming comedies, "Quality Street " and "The Pretty Sister of Jos," followed, and then came Barrie's spectacular "Peter Pan," which proved the greatest success of this popular actress' career. In 1911, Charles Frohman presented in America Rostand's sensational barnyard drama, "Chantecler," in which all the characters are birds and beasts, Maude Adams being cast for the rle of the crowing rooster. For the first time, Frohman's unerring judgment had failed him. The play, as might easily have been foreseen, was only a success of curiosity, and Miss Adams, a frail, shrinking little woman, was woefully miscast in a rle necessarily calling for an exhibition of the most lusty virility.
=====Guide to Great Plays by Joseph T. Shipley; Public Affairs Press, 1956=====
When ill health sent Edmond Rostand to the Basque countryside, in 1899, there came to him the idea of using the birds of the farm to capture something of mankind, "to express my own dreams and to make live, before my eyes, a little of myself." Illness intervened again and again. He told the idea to Coquelin in 1905; the play was ready for rehearsal in 1909, when Coquelin suddenly died. Chantecler finally opened in Paris, with Lucien Guitry in the title part, on February 7, 1910, to one of the most brilliant -- and most expectant -- audiences in the history of the theatre. In New York, despite the eagerness of Sarah Bernhardt and Olga Nethersole, both friends of Rostand, Charles Frohman gave the role of Chantecler to Maude Adams.
In both countries the production was a disappointment. The reason was well put in the New York Tribune ( January 25, 1911): "The piece loses immensely in the playing. The actors, masked and hampered by their feathers and beaks and claws -- only the principals show their faces, and gesturing is of course impossible -- are neither one thing nor the other. Comparatively few of their lines get across as they should, and much of the play's poetry and dramatic quality is untranslatable into the visual terms required by the stage." To dwarf the humans to bird size, they are shown against gigantic properties and sets; but something of the play's seriousness and profundity seems also dwarfed thereby.
When read, the play reveals a brilliance that no production has yet captured; a witty satire of mankind, and a proud tribute to humanity withal. A special Chantecler number of Le Thetre (No. 268, February 12, 1910) looked beneath the feathers for the heart of the story. The cock, who knows that his crowing wakes the sun, who recaptures his faith even after the hen-pheasant has made him over-sleep the dawn: he is "the Gallic cock", the embodiment of the French love of order. Said Nozire: "He wants to protect the brains of his countrymen from obscurity, and from bad taste. He wants to set society beyond reach of disorder. Never has a more nationalistic piece been written. Yet M. Rostand belongs to no party. There is in his work no bitterness nor hate. His allegorical hero is as resigned to the ingratitude of the many as is Jesus. . . . The play is a hymn to enthusiasm, nature, tradition, work. . . . Chantecler defends the French tradition against the foreign and the foreigner. . . . Never has he found accents more human than in this play devoted to the beasts."
Coquelin had seen Chantecler as a creature of gaiety; vain, but buoyant; inventive, a resourceful observer. Guitry interpreted Chantecler as a believer in work, as a thinker, a creature of gravity, a lover of beauty. Maude Adams tried to combine these interpretations, but essentially to show that one must "do one's work, though it cost one's love and one's life." Max Beerholm felt that Guitry was too steadily grave: "For Chantecler is a dual part. The cock is at once a great figure and a figure of fun." When the sun rises without his summons, "Chantecler, though troubled, is undismayed. The sun, he reassures himself, has risen in answer to the still resounding echoes of some previous day's song. There is grandeur in the thought, as in all the thoughts of Chantecler; but the grandeur of Chantecler is the measure of his grotesqueness."
That grotesqueness, but also that grandeur, gleam in the spirit of man. There is the rivalry of the sexes in the play: the quiet victory of the female; and the complacent self-assurance of the male that turns defeat into a greater triumph. There is a satiric picture of the French people. But beyond these -- through the Gallic sense of order that shadows man's attempt to cope with the mysteries of the universe; through the vanity that cloaks man's erection of his powers against nature's driving force -- Chantecler is a wise and witty, a smiling and searching, a tender and revealing drama of the human spirit in search of beauty and truth.
A critic wrote on January 23, 1911:
"With Miss Adams in the title part, Edmond Rostand's French Play, Chantecler, had its first production in English upon any stage at the Knickerbocker Theater here tonight...The version is a poetic translation by Louis N. Parker."
"Chantecler is not an allegory, is not a satire. It is simply a play in which the humble barnyard fowl and homely domestic animals imbued with the feelings and passions of humans, enact the riddle of life. In it each spectator may see his own image and read the answer to the problems which confront him."
"When the curtain rose on the first act, showing the barnyard with its hens and ducks, the little chickens just out of their shells, the blackbird pacing the cage in his nervous way, the great black cat asleep in the sun on the road and the dog chained in his kennel, there was a murmur of approval, while the effect of Chantecler, impersonated by Miss Adams, as he jumped on the garden wall, with his iridescent breast and greenish black tail and his majestic comb, was tremendous."
"The main theme, of course, is the inevitable trials and disasters that overtake those who believe they are called to play a master part in life. And it is marked out in the story of Chantecler, the rooster, who, firmly convinced that the sun rises each morning because he crows, gradually learns that it rises without his assistance. Finally, he becomes reconciled to the fact that even if he does not make the sun rise, he does announce the dawn of another day to a sleeping world."
"Despite his disappointment, Chantecler realizes that he was created for a purpose. And so he plays his minor part in the great scheme of things honestly and well."
“The speeches of Chantecler were a pitiful strain on the physical powers of the actress. She could impart no note of masterful ecstasy to her long rhapsodies, abridged as they were.” Sun, Jan. 24, 1911
“Through her weak delivery, passages which should have been forceful became commonplace and scenes which should have been stirring were merely interesting.” Life, Feb. 2, 1911
“But more than once the volume of speech and the onrush of the action were too much for her, and the passages became cloudy with the loss of words that did not sound across the footlights.” New York Times, Jan. 24, 1911
“Some of the longest speeches, too were beyond Miss Adam's powers, as was shown by her painfully audible efforts to regain her breath.” The Theatre, March, 1911
“Even in her glistening coat and majestic tail feathers she was preeminently a hen. And she was not much unlike the other hens in the play, which were meant to be hens. Crane her neck, strut, scratch the earth as sshe would, she could offer no illusion of commanding masculinity. There was none of the lordly vaingloriousness of the rooster in the manner of this feminie impersonator of male fowls.” The World, Jan. 24, 1911
“Delivered in soft, feminine tones, the lines lost their true significance entirely. Not for a moment was one able to forget that a delicate bit of femininity was masquerading in coarse masculine garb.” The Theatre, March, 1911
“Probably every critic in the land will decry Maude Adam's selection of the role of Chantecler. The attitude is not exactly fair. Nothing that Maude Adams does is ever done badly, and in this newest part she plays with redoubled earnestness, sincerity and charm. Probably because she realizes fully the task she has undertaken she throws her whole soul and all her resources into the work.” Hampton's Magazine, March 1911
“Miss Maude Adams is a charming actress, gifted as are few players with sensitiveness, intelligence, and the beauty which seems to come from that indefinite, evasive quality defined as soul. Her voice, often vibrant with rich and tender feeling has peculiar power in awakening a response, and she has, in abundant measure, the peculiar quality of personal magnetism which is so essential to theatrical success. But the sum of all her qualities spells woman, if it spells anything at all. her exquisite femininity, indeed, has been most responsible for her success. But whatever Chantecler may be-and to different minds he may be many things-he is never feminine.” New York Times, Jan. 24, 1911
“Certainly it will add nothing to her reputation. Everyone loves Maude Adams and will crowd to see her in no matter what she appears. But may not popularity be put to too severe a test? Unwise experiments of this kind, if indulged in too long, may diminish the glory of the brightest star.” The Theatre, March 1911
“...Chantecler is the personification of masculinity, and for a woman to aspire to that role is sheer presumption.” The Independent, Feb. 23, 1911
The Washington Post, Jan. 8, 191
Indianapolis Star, Jan. 16, 1911
Indianapolis Star, Jan. 29, 1911
The Syracuse Herald, Nov. 2, 1911
Evening Post (MD) Feb. 2, 1911
Colorado Springs Gazette, Feb. 5, 1911
Indianapolis Star, Jan. 7, 1912
Trenton Evening Times, Jan. 15, 1912
Coshocton Tribune, Dec. 22, 1937
The third is a fairly critical review of the play. The final, separate article is about Maude Adams putting on a production of Chanticleer at the college where she was teaching (and the play was a success, by the way). `